Refer to the Quotations Powerpoint (or pdf version),
and/or MLA Style for In-Text Citations (Links to an external site.) while completing this assignment.
This assignment involves writing five (5) sentences in which you practice using quotations.
First, read the Slate.com article below, â€œA New Report Shows School Discipline is Meted Out Unequally According to Race, Gender and Ability,â€ by Rachel Hampton
Next, write five sentences that each include a quote from the paragraph below. The sentences do not need to be connected to one another. Just write five separate sentences using quotations.You can either attach your sentences as a Word file, or type them directly into the text box.
Note that Hampton uses paraphrase to cite the GAO as a source of much of her information. If you use any of that information in one of your quotes, you would not need to include it in your in-text citation, as you should only cite the source where you read the material. You do not need to cite your sourceâ€™s source.
MLA Quotation Tips:
— If you mention the authorâ€™s name in the body of the sentence, donâ€™t include it in the in-text parenthetical citation. In such cases, you would only put the page number in the parentheses. Ifin-te there is no page number, as is often the case in web pages, then you do not include a page number.
— Online sources are considered NOT to have page numbers. Thus, if youâ€™ve mentioned the authorâ€™s name in the sentence and you donâ€™t have a page number, you may not need an in-text parenthetical citation at all. The purpose of in text citations in MLA style are just to guide the reader as to where to find the more detailed source information listed on the Works Cited page.
— There are no commas in MLA style in-text citations (except when you have more than one author).
EXAMPLE: The best chefs agree that that â€œSeacrest pickles are the most flavorful and the best price of all the range of available picklesâ€ (Smith 242). OR The best chefs agree with Smith, who states that â€œSeacrest Pickles are the most flavorfulâ€ (242).
Refer to other course material on quotations.
â€œA New Report Shows School Discipline Is Meted Out Unequally According to Race, Gender, and Abilityâ€
by Rachel Hampton
A new report out Wednesday (Links to an external site.) backed up what parents, activists, and scholars have been saying for years: There are vast disparities in how different children receive disciplinary action in school. The Government Accountability Office (GAO), a nonpartisan federal watchdog, found that black students, boys, and students with disabilities are disproportionately disciplined in Kâ€“12 public schools, with the disparities for black students and boys presenting as early as preschool. GAOâ€™s analysis included interviews with administrators, school visits across the country, and data from the 2013â€“14 school year supplied by the Department of Educationâ€™s Civil Rights Data Collection arm. According to GAO, this report builds on research showing that students who are disciplined in ways that take them out of the classroom are more likely to fall behind, drop out, or get involved with the juvenile justice systemâ€”all of which can result in incarceration and decreased earning potential over a lifetime.
The researchers found that regardless of the kind of disciplinary action, the type of public school students attended, or the level of the schoolâ€™s poverty, these patterns of disproportionate discipline persisted. The fact that the disparities resisted increases in income is of particular significance, as it contradicts popular conceptions of what drives disciplinary imbalances. â€œThe idea that discipline disparities transcend poverty is something that is pretty important and has not been understood in that way before,â€ said the research teamâ€™s lead, Jacqueline Nowicki, in an interview with NPR (Links to an external site.). While out-of-school suspensions for black students tended to decrease as a schoolâ€™s poverty level decreasedâ€”while still remaining disproportionate to their relative populationâ€”the opposite effect happened for boys and students with disabilities.
Black students in particular are still overrepresented among students who were subjected to punishments like suspension, corporal punishment, and school-related arrests. According to the GAO report, â€œAlthough there were approximately 17.4 million more White students than Black students attending Kâ€“12 public schools in 2013â€“14, nearly 176,000 more Black students than White students were suspended from school that school year.â€ Black students were also the only group where that disparity reached across boundaries of sex as well: Black girls were not only suspended more than any other racial group of girls but also at higher rates than some groups of boys.
The numbers were similarly stark for students with disabilities. Despite making up approximately 12 percent of public school students, students with disabilities accounted for â€œnearly 25 percent or more of students referred to law enforcement, arrested for a school-related incident, or suspended from school.â€ Add another intersecting marginalized identity and the disparities only grow: Black students with disabilities only made up about 19 percent of the total population of students with disabilities but accounted for over a third of those suspended from school.
The GAO report arrives at a pivotal moment in education, with Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos considering rolling back Obama-era (Links to an external site.) guidance to school districts that stressed that disparities like these are violations of civil rights law. And across the country (Links to an external site.), teachers are (Links to an external site.) going on strike (Links to an external site.) to demand access to resources that would help address these issues, at least in part, by giving them more time to devote to their students. Smaller class sizes, better pay, more support staff, and not having to worry about functioning heat or toilets would all help create an environment where teachers arenâ€™t â€œmentally numb (Links to an external site.)â€ and wonâ€™t see suspension or a call to the police as their first and most expedient option for disciplining a misbehaving child. Of course, better-paid teachers and pristine textbooks wonâ€™t remedy unconscious bias. But thereâ€™s hope that with data like this, schools will invest more resources into not only addressing and correcting bias in their staff but retaining teachers of color, more than half of whom said that poor workplace conditions (Links to an external site.) were contributing to their workplace dissatisfaction.
The GAO report also noted that each of the school districts that researchers visited was already considering â€œnew approaches to school discipline,â€ but they found themselves up against new and graver challenges like the effects of poverty and â€œa growing trend of behavioral challenges related to mental health and trauma.â€ What students need right now arenâ€™t teachers armed with handguns or more police officers patrolling their hallways, but schools staffed with both counselors who can address trauma and teachers who can confront bad behavior without resorting to calling the police. And teachers understand that: In the interview with NPR, Nowicki noted that her team didnâ€™t â€œhear anything about teachers feeling less safe when they were using practices aimed at correcting inappropriate behavior in a non-exclusionary way.â€ Looking at this nonpartisan research, thereâ€™s no denying these disparities existâ€”and to an alarming degree. What matters now is what we do about them.