Write a paper in which you discuss both the positive contributions of the Umayyad Caliphs, as well as their actions that had a negative impact on the people living in the MiIDle East and North Africa (MENA).

Write a paper in which you discuss both the positive contributions of the Umayyad Caliphs, as well as their actions that had a negative impact on the people living in the MiIDle East and North Africa (MENA).

The Umayyads remain one of the most controversial dynasties in Islamic history. In the eyes of many historians, they either were impious rulers who had an overwhelmingly negative impact on Islam, or rulers who were dedicated to the cause of Islam and played a crucial role in its successful transition from a local Arabian religion to a world civilization.
Your task is to write a paper in which you discuss both the positive contributions of the Umayyad Caliphs, as well as their actions that had a negative impact on the people living in the MiIDle East and North Africa (MENA). In your conclusion, you should assess whether their impact, on the whole, was positive or detrimental to Islamic civilization and the MENA region.
You may only use readings assigned for this class for this paper.
Please cite The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates as (Kennedy, [page number]) in the body of your paper. You do not need footnotes or a bibliography.