Topic: The Quantitative Designs
Topic: The Quantitative Designs
3, pages, 3, or more sources.
Think about quantitative research methods and the many different designs that could be used to elucidate answers related to an area of study. For this Discussion, you will specifically consider quasi- and true experimental methods. While there are other recognized designs (e.g. pre-experimental and single-subject) quasi- and true experimental methods are more commonly adopted for thesis and dissertation research.
To prepare for this Discussion:
? •Review the studies you have read in your area of interest. Reflect on patterns and consider “gaps,” that is, what is still unknown or could be known.
? •Review the assigned reading in the course text, paying particular attention to the characteristics of experimental research methods.
? •Based on the reading, Discussions, and Applications you have completed thus far, and given your area of interest, consider a research question (this research question may or may not be one you have previously posed) that you could ask that would fill a gap (that is, elucidate something that is still unknown or could be known in the area) that could be answered with an experimental research design.
? •Consider how you could use both a quasi- and a true experimental design to study your area of interest.
? •Think about possible threats to validity for each of these designs, compared to the survey study you designed last week.
With these thoughts in mind:
My area of interest is human resource representative.
? Post a brief (1-3 sentences) description of your area of interest, then re-state the research question you developed last week for a survey design followed by two more research questions: one that could be answered with a quasi-experimental design, and
? One that could be aIDressed with a true experimental design.
? Explain the implications for using survey vs. quasi-experimental vs. true experimental designs including, but not limited to, the various threats to validity posed by each.
Last week assignment.
Survey Design Skills
Research Question: How can downward communication in an organization are used to influence greater employee engagement?
Survey Research Method: A survey method would be appropriate for investigating this research question, as evidenced by the fact that a survey can promote discussion about the individual’s experience and make it possible to obtain firsthand information on it (Law, Roto, Hassenzahl, Vermeeren, & Kort, 2009).
Hypotheses: The null hypothesis in this study is that downward communication in an organization exerts no influence on employee engagement. The alternative research hypothesis is that downward communication in an organization does exert an influence on employee engagement, promoting it.
Research Design: The research design for this study will be a qualitative grounded theory approach, in which the data collected will be used inductively to develop a theory bottom up that is grounded in the data (Nisrin, 2011).
Population: The population will be all employees in an organization that receive downward communication from those above them. This would include employees receiving communication from their supervisor, a manager, an executive in the company, or any other individual who is positioned above them in the organization chart and who has direct or indirect authority over them. No other criteria will apply, and demographic information such as age and gender will not be considered.
Sampling: Sampling in the population will be purposive sampling. Five employees from each level in the organization chart will be included in the sample. For example, five from the lowest level, five from the next lowest level, and so on. I would gain access to the participants by obtaining the approval of the human resources director, who would also provide me with a list of employees by level. The director would inform the employees that the study will take place, introduce me to the organization, and instruct employees to participate if they are selected and if they choose to participate. Participants would be briefed on the purpose and methods of the survey and would provide informed consent.
Measures: The measures I will use to assess the predictor and the outcome include the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Gallup Q12 Meta-Analysis tool (Schaufeli, Bakker, & Salanova, 2006; Harter, Schmidt, Killham, & Asplund, 2006; Appendices A and B). The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale is comprised of 17 statements that describe how an employee feels at work. The employee selects an answer to identify on a scale from never to always how often he/she feels as described in each of the 17 statements. The Gallup Q12 Meta-Analysis tool is a 12-question survey tool in which the first question only is based on a five-point scale, where “5” is extremely satisfied and “1” is extremely dissatisfied. The employee selects an answer that most aptly describes where on the scale he feels about his workplace. For the remaining 11 questions, the employee uses a range between 5, which designates “strongly disagree” and 12, which designates “strongly agree” to respond to each statement. A sixth response—“doesn’t know”—is not scored if selected.
Ethical protection of participants: Ethical protection of participants is essential in any study. In this study, there are some ethical issues that I can foresee that need to be aIDressed for the protection of the participants. Since participants will be employees of a company, it is vital that their results and responses be kept completely confidential. Any suggestion that an employee may be less engaged than other employees could be used against him/her when supervisors are considering promotions, raises, bonuses, or terminations. Another ethical issue is that results may be misinterpreted to indicate that employees may be emotionally immature or unstable by virtue of their results on the two measures. It would unethical to expose any employee to such judgment; so again, the results need to be kept completely confidential. This would include safeguarding the results in a tamper-proof safe place that has been secured. Finally, some supervisors may demand to see an employee’s responses because the supervisor is already considering using the responses as justification to take damaging action against the employee. This cannot be permitted, so it is helpful to explain the ethical safeguards that will be used before the study begins.