It is clear from the material in this course that inferential statistics plays a critical role in research in the behavioral and social sciences.
Paper should be a minimum of 5 pages long (excluding title and references pages) and include a title page, introduction, conclusion, and references page. APA formatting should be used for the paper. Utilize at least two resources for this paper, which should be cited accordingly.
Since students in this class will further their education via coursework and research conducted via the practicum and dissertation processes, it is important to reflect on the knowledge gained and its applicability to one?s future in the field. Utilizing all that you have learned and been exposed to in this course, write a paper providing an overview of your knowledge of inferential statistics, specifically discussing how you would go about deciding upon the appropriate statistical tests to use for a study.
Include the following in your paper:
? Create and present a decision tree, outline, or other model that includes a series of questions to help someone decide what statistical test is appropriate for a study. Consider the number, type, and scale of measurement of the variables, as well as what you may want to know about the variables (e.g., relationship, difference, etc.). This may be presented as a chart, table, mindmap, or other visual representation, or simply formatted as an outline.
? Explain the steps involved in the model and how you created this model for making statistical decisions. What were the easiest and most difficult parts of this process?
? Describe two different studies of interest to you. (Note: Neither study should be one focused on in any of the assignments during the course.) Include the following in the description:
? Descriptive statistics ? Write an overview of the descriptive statistics (1 paragraph), including the appropriate and necessary statistical results within sentences and in proper APA formatting. Be sure to provide sufficient explanation for any numbers presented. Consider the following in your overview and conclusions:
o Research Question ? List the research question for each study.
o Hypotheses ? List the statistical notation and written explanations for the null and alternative hypotheses for each study.
o Variables ? Identify the variables and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and independent or dependent.
? Demonstrate how you would utilize the statistical decisions model you created to choose the appropriate, specific test(s) for each study. What is your conclusion using this model? Did the model lead you to the correct test(s)? If not, how do you know and what changes might need to be made to the model?
? Why might a statistical decisions model be useful in statistics and research methods? What are its limitations?
? What did you learn or gain from creating this model and applying it to the study of interest? How might you use this model in the future?
Paper should be a minimum of 4-5 pages long (excluding title and references pages) and include a title page, introduction, conclusion, and references page. APA formatting should be used for the paper. Utilize at least two resources for this paper, which should be cited accordingly.
Recommended Readings (Week 6)
American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
? Chapter 4: The Mechanics of Style (Sections: Numbers; Statistical and Mathematical Copy)
Arkkelin, D. (n. d.). Using SPSS to understand research and data analysis. Retrieved from Valparaiso University Web site.
? Chapter 7: Crosstabs ? Interpreting the output: https://wwwstage.valpo.edu/other/dabook/ch7/c7-3.htm
Easton, V. J., & McColl, J. H. (1997). STEPS: Statistics Glossary v1.1. Retrieved from University of Glasgow Web site:
? Categorical Data: https://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/steps/glossary/categorical_data.html
? Nonparametric Methods: https://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/steps/glossary/nonparametric.html
Garson, G. D. (2009). Statnotes: Topics in Multivariate Analysis. Retrieved from North Carolina State University Web site:
? Chi-Square Significance Tests: https://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/chisq.htm
? Fisher Exact Test of Significance: https://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/fisher.htm
? Significance: https://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/signif.htm
? Significance Tests for More than Two Dependent Samples: https://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/friedman.htm
? Significance Tests for Two Dependent Samples: https://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/mcnemar.htm
? Tests for More than Two Independent Samples: https://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/kruskal.htm
? Testing of Assumptions: https://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/assumpt.htm
? Tests for Two Independent Samples: https://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/mann.htm
Lane, D. M. (2007). HyperStat online statistics textbook.
? Chapter 16: Chi Square: https://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/chi_square.html
? Chapter 17: Distribution-Free Tests: https://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/dist_free.html
StatSoft, Inc. (2011). Nonparametric Statistics. In Electronic Statistics Textbook. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft. Retrieved from https://www.statsoft.com/textbook/nonparametric-statistics/?button=2
UCLA (2010). Chapter XII: Non-Parametric Inference. In Probability and statistics ebook. Retrieved from UCLA?s Statistics Online Computational Resource Wiki page: https://wiki.stat.ucla.edu/socr/index.php/Probability_and_statistics_EBook#Chapter_XII:_Non-Parametric_Inference
VCU (2010). SPSS Help Sheets. Retrieved from VCU?s Statistical Sciences & Operations Research Web site:
? Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test in SPSS: https://www.or.vcu.edu/help/SPSS/SPSS.GoodnessOfFit.PC.pdf
? Chi-Square Independence/Homogeneity Tests in SPSS: https://www.or.vcu.edu/help/SPSS/SPSS.ChiSqIndepTests.PC.pdf
? Friedman?s Tests in SPSS: https://www.or.vcu.edu/help/SPSS/SPSS.Friedman.PC.pdf
? Kruskal-Wallis Tests in SPSS: https://www.or.vcu.edu/help/SPSS/SPSS.KruskalWallis.PC.pdf
? Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test in SPSS: https://www.or.vcu.edu/help/SPSS/SPSS.MannWhitneyTests.PC.pdf
? Wilcoxon Paired Signed-Rank Test in SPSS: https://www.or.vcu.edu/help/SPSS/SPSS.Blocks.PC.pdf
? Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test in SPSS: https://www.or.vcu.edu/help/SPSS/SPSS.WilcoxonTests.PC.pdf
? Interactive Applications and Simulations
o MicrOsiris (n.d.). The Decision Tree for Statistics. Adapted from Andrews, Klem, Davidson, O?Malley, and Rodgers? A guide for Selecting Statistical Techniques for Analyzing Social Science Data (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://www.microsiris.com/Statistical%20Decision%20Tree/
o Online Stat Book (2008). Chi-Square Test of Deviations from Expected Frequencies. Retrieved from Rice Virtual Lab in Statistics Web site: https://onlinestatbook.com/stat_sim/chisq_theor/index.html
o Trochim, W. M. K. (2006). Selecting Statistics. In Research methods knowledge base (2nd ed.). Retrieved from Web Center for Social Research Methods Web site: https://www.socialresearchmethods.net/selstat/ssstart.htm
o BBC Radio?s More or Less: Behind the Stats Podcast episodes can be accessed via the following website: https://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/moreorless
o Consortium for Mathematics and its Applications & Chedd-Angier (Producers). (1989). Against all odds: Inside statistics. Available from https://www.learner.org/resources/series65.html
&#61607; 23: Inference for Proportions
&#61607; 24. Inference for Two-Way Tables
o Khan Academy (Producer). (2011). Statistics. Available from https://www.khanacademy.org/#Statistics
o Chi-Square Distribution Introduction
o Contingency Table Chi-Square Test
o Pearson?s Chi-Square Test (Goodness of Fit)
o Cengage Learning (2005). Research Methods Workshops. Available from: https://www.wadsworth.com/psychology_d/templates/student_resources/workshops/resch_wrk.html
&#61607; APA Style
&#61607; Between versus Within Designs
&#61607; Ethical Issues
&#61607; Evaluating Published Research
&#61607; Experimental Methods
&#61607; Getting Ideas for a Study
&#61607; Operational Definitions
&#61607; Reliability and Validity
&#61607; Sampling Methods
&#61607; Specifying Constructs
&#61607; True Experiments
o Cengage Learning (2005). Statistics Workshops. Available from: https://www.wadsworth.com/psychology_d/templates/student_resources/workshops/stats_wrk.html
&#61607; Choosing the Correct Statistical Test
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