complete the following 15

NO OUTSIDE SOURCES BESIDES THE ONES PROVIDED

Application Assignment #3

You are only required to listen to the fist 30 minutes of this podcast. I encourage you, however, to listen to all of it if you can. Once again – only the first 30 minutes is required.

This is a relatively difficult listen, mostly due to the topics discussed and the fact that it would be helpful to have some basic knowledge of biology, discussions of free will, and neurology in order to better understand it. However, we have covered a lot of this in class and besides, it’s good to take on academic challenges. As always, please come to me for help if you need it.

EACH ANSWER REQUIRES A MINIMUM OF 5 SENTENCES!

And follows same rubric as first podcast assignment.

  1. ( Starts withing the first 5 minutes) – Describe what Robert Sapolsky studies. He has two fairly distinct fields of study – how does he “marry” them?
  2. ( Starts within 10 min) – Why does he study baboons and not, say, chimpanzees, given that the latter are more related to us? He mentions both practical reasons and reasons specific to his research interests.
  3. (10-15 minutes mark) – When asked, “how/why did behavior X occur?” -Dr Sapolsky frames his answer in a certain way. Summarize it. Why is this important to frame it this way – when discussing human behavior?
  4. Why is it important to study related non-human primates when studying or trying to explain our own behavior? What are some issues about using non-human primate behavior when trying to explain humans behavior?
  5. (At about 17:00 and the rest of the assigned listening time(they allude to this earlier though))- they start talking about “free will and human behavior” Summarize their discussion on this.
  6. (At 25:00 through the end of the assigned listening time) – What are your thoughts on free will, especially in relation to human behavior and evolution?

LINK TO THE PODCAST- https://samharris.org/podcasts/the-biology-of-good-and-evil/

(Links to an external site.)

Links to an external site.

Application Assignment #4

Please make sure to answer the following questions in complete sentences, paragraph form. Make sure you answers are supported when needed.

5 sentence minimum per answer

1. Before reading the article – answer this question – How can we determine if another animal has culture? Specifically, how can we tell the difference between a culturally influenced behavior versus a solely biologically determined behavior (like an instinct for example)?

Please read this article.

cultures_in_chimpanzees.pdf

2. Please summarize the article to the best of your ability, including charts.

3. Provide an argument, using the article as support, that chimpanzees do have some form of culture.

4. Provide an argument, using the article as support, that chimpanzees do not have a form of culture.

Application Assignment #5

Please watch this video and answer the following questions. 5 sentences minimum per question: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FMc81qpCQ3g&feature=youtu.be

1. Actually, before watching the video, answer this question. Imagine there was a hypothesis that stated that many modern humans have some Neanderthal DNA. What would this imply about our evolution and history with Neanderthals? What do you think it would mean for humans that do not have Neanderthal DNA?

2. Using your knowledge of natural selection, please explain how the Neanderthals evolved in the specific northern climates of Europe.

3. Summarize the ideas or hypothesis presented in the video regarding the extinction of the Neanderthals. What evidence do they provide? What are your thoughts on this?

Application Assignment #6

For full points, please answer all questions, meeting minimum sentence requirement

and

Respond to at least 2 different other students with a minimum 5 sentence response.

In this assignment, we’ll start to look at one of the things that makes our species exceptional – that is culture. You’re read and seen videos that explain that other animals/hominins have culture, but I think it is an easy argument to make that our current culture is at a different level.

Think about this – life has existed on this planet for about 3.5 billions years. Yes billions. Now out of those 3.5 billions years, it has only been in the last 100 years or so that any animal has developed technology that can destroy the planet – and that animal is of course, us. We have evolved to produce and share culture. We have evolved to be creative. However, is that ultimately going to get us into trouble?

Please read the following paper by philosopher, Nick Bostrom. You are only required to read through page 458, however I encourage you all to read the whole paper.

vulnerable.pdf

1. Using your understanding of evolution, specifically natural selection, provide a hypothesis of how and why we evolved to produce culture and to be so creative.

2. Please summarize the part you were required to read.

3. What do you think of this hypothesis? Do you think it is possible that we will one day pick up a “black ball”? What about the idea that any one of our white and grey balls can one day turn into black balls? Meaning, we invent technology that appears to be beneficial but one day will ultimately destroy us?

Chapter 5 Reading Assignment

For full points –

Meet the minimum sentence requirement

and

Clearly answer the questions, making sure that you demonstrate how it is that you reached your conclusion

All responses require a 5 sentence minimum.

1. Describe the traits that make a primate a primate. Do all primates have all of these features? Explain and provide examples.

2. Summarize the differences between the Platyrrhini and Catarrhini

3. Summarize the basic characteristics of the Strepsirrhines.

LINK- http://explorations.americananthro.org/

Chapter 6 Reading Assignment

For full points –

Meet the minimum sentence requirement

and

Clearly answer the questions, making sure that you demonstrate how it is that you reached your conclusion

All responses require a 5 sentence minimum.

1. Summarize the chapter’s discussion on sexual selection, including the two types. How would you use the model of sexual selection to explain the differences in human males and females?

2. What are the costs and benefits of group living? If living in a group is beneficial for most primates, why do some individuals disperse and leave their group? How do the costs and benefits of dispersal differ for males and females?

3. What is the evidence for cultural variation in primates? How do primatologists think cultural transmission occurs in primates? How do you think this process compares to cultural transmission in humans?

LINK- http://explorations.americananthro.org/

Chapter 8 Reading Assignment

For full points –

Meet the minimum sentence requirement

and

Clearly answer the questions, making sure that you demonstrate how it is that you reached your conclusion

All responses require a 5 sentence minimum.

1. Explain the type of evidence presented in this chapter; provide some specific examples as well. Do you think this evidence supports the model(s) of primate evolution presented by the authors? Why or why not?

2. Compare three major hypotheses about primate origins, making reference to each one’s key ecological reason for primate uniqueness.

3. Discuss the biogeography of the origins of African great apes and orangutans using examples from the Miocene ape fossil record.

LINK- http://explorations.americananthro.org/

Chapter 9 Reading Assignment

For full points –

Meet the minimum sentence requirement

and

Clearly answer the questions, making sure that you demonstrate how it is that you reached your conclusion

All responses require a 5 sentence minimum.

1. As you read, evidence for early hominin evolution isn’t as robust as we would like. For example, fossil sample sizes for the various proposed hominins could leave a lot to be desired. Overall, what’s your opinion on the evidence presented in this chapter. Do you think the evidence justifies accepting the existence of these (some? all?) hominins? Explain. Give specific examples when appropriate.

2. What is the difference between a “derived” versus a “primitive” trait? Give an example of both, seen in Au. afarensis.

3. Which of the paleoenvironment hypothesis have been used to describe early hominin diversity, and which have been used to describe bipedalism?

LINK- http://explorations.americananthro.org/

Chapter 12 Reading Assignment

For full points –

Meet the minimum sentence requirement

and

Clearly answer the questions, making sure that you demonstrate how it is that you reached your conclusion

All responses require a 5 sentence minimum.

Before reading the chapter:

1. If species only give birth to their own type of species, then how exactly did modern humans originate? Meaning, you are a human being and you came from two human beings and those human beings came from other humans beings and so on. But you are telling me that somehow, if you look into your distant past, you have ancestors that are not Homo sapiens, but a different species? Please explain this to me.

2. What are the skeletal and behavioral traits that define modern Homo sapiens? What are the evolutionary explanations for its presence?

3. Do you think we are still evolving? Why or why not? Explain your answer.

LINK- http://explorations.americananthro.org/NO OUTSIDE SOURCES BESIDES THE ONES PROVIDED

Application Assignment #3

You are only required to listen to the fist 30 minutes of this podcast. I encourage you, however, to listen to all of it if you can. Once again – only the first 30 minutes is required.

This is a relatively difficult listen, mostly due to the topics discussed and the fact that it would be helpful to have some basic knowledge of biology, discussions of free will, and neurology in order to better understand it. However, we have covered a lot of this in class and besides, it’s good to take on academic challenges. As always, please come to me for help if you need it.

EACH ANSWER REQUIRES A MINIMUM OF 5 SENTENCES!

And follows same rubric as first podcast assignment.

  1. ( Starts withing the first 5 minutes) – Describe what Robert Sapolsky studies. He has two fairly distinct fields of study – how does he “marry” them?
  2. ( Starts within 10 min) – Why does he study baboons and not, say, chimpanzees, given that the latter are more related to us? He mentions both practical reasons and reasons specific to his research interests.
  3. (10-15 minutes mark) – When asked, “how/why did behavior X occur?” -Dr Sapolsky frames his answer in a certain way. Summarize it. Why is this important to frame it this way – when discussing human behavior?
  4. Why is it important to study related non-human primates when studying or trying to explain our own behavior? What are some issues about using non-human primate behavior when trying to explain humans behavior?
  5. (At about 17:00 and the rest of the assigned listening time(they allude to this earlier though))- they start talking about “free will and human behavior” Summarize their discussion on this.
  6. (At 25:00 through the end of the assigned listening time) – What are your thoughts on free will, especially in relation to human behavior and evolution?

LINK TO THE PODCAST- https://samharris.org/podcasts/the-biology-of-good-and-evil/

(Links to an external site.)

Links to an external site.

Application Assignment #4

Please make sure to answer the following questions in complete sentences, paragraph form. Make sure you answers are supported when needed.

5 sentence minimum per answer

1. Before reading the article – answer this question – How can we determine if another animal has culture? Specifically, how can we tell the difference between a culturally influenced behavior versus a solely biologically determined behavior (like an instinct for example)?

Please read this article.

cultures_in_chimpanzees.pdf

2. Please summarize the article to the best of your ability, including charts.

3. Provide an argument, using the article as support, that chimpanzees do have some form of culture.

4. Provide an argument, using the article as support, that chimpanzees do not have a form of culture.

Application Assignment #5

Please watch this video and answer the following questions. 5 sentences minimum per question: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FMc81qpCQ3g&feature=youtu.be

1. Actually, before watching the video, answer this question. Imagine there was a hypothesis that stated that many modern humans have some Neanderthal DNA. What would this imply about our evolution and history with Neanderthals? What do you think it would mean for humans that do not have Neanderthal DNA?

2. Using your knowledge of natural selection, please explain how the Neanderthals evolved in the specific northern climates of Europe.

3. Summarize the ideas or hypothesis presented in the video regarding the extinction of the Neanderthals. What evidence do they provide? What are your thoughts on this?

Application Assignment #6

For full points, please answer all questions, meeting minimum sentence requirement

and

Respond to at least 2 different other students with a minimum 5 sentence response.

In this assignment, we’ll start to look at one of the things that makes our species exceptional – that is culture. You’re read and seen videos that explain that other animals/hominins have culture, but I think it is an easy argument to make that our current culture is at a different level.

Think about this – life has existed on this planet for about 3.5 billions years. Yes billions. Now out of those 3.5 billions years, it has only been in the last 100 years or so that any animal has developed technology that can destroy the planet – and that animal is of course, us. We have evolved to produce and share culture. We have evolved to be creative. However, is that ultimately going to get us into trouble?

Please read the following paper by philosopher, Nick Bostrom. You are only required to read through page 458, however I encourage you all to read the whole paper.

vulnerable.pdf

1. Using your understanding of evolution, specifically natural selection, provide a hypothesis of how and why we evolved to produce culture and to be so creative.

2. Please summarize the part you were required to read.

3. What do you think of this hypothesis? Do you think it is possible that we will one day pick up a “black ball”? What about the idea that any one of our white and grey balls can one day turn into black balls? Meaning, we invent technology that appears to be beneficial but one day will ultimately destroy us?

Chapter 5 Reading Assignment

For full points –

Meet the minimum sentence requirement

and

Clearly answer the questions, making sure that you demonstrate how it is that you reached your conclusion

All responses require a 5 sentence minimum.

1. Describe the traits that make a primate a primate. Do all primates have all of these features? Explain and provide examples.

2. Summarize the differences between the Platyrrhini and Catarrhini

3. Summarize the basic characteristics of the Strepsirrhines.

LINK- http://explorations.americananthro.org/

Chapter 6 Reading Assignment

For full points –

Meet the minimum sentence requirement

and

Clearly answer the questions, making sure that you demonstrate how it is that you reached your conclusion

All responses require a 5 sentence minimum.

1. Summarize the chapter’s discussion on sexual selection, including the two types. How would you use the model of sexual selection to explain the differences in human males and females?

2. What are the costs and benefits of group living? If living in a group is beneficial for most primates, why do some individuals disperse and leave their group? How do the costs and benefits of dispersal differ for males and females?

3. What is the evidence for cultural variation in primates? How do primatologists think cultural transmission occurs in primates? How do you think this process compares to cultural transmission in humans?

LINK- http://explorations.americananthro.org/

Chapter 8 Reading Assignment

For full points –

Meet the minimum sentence requirement

and

Clearly answer the questions, making sure that you demonstrate how it is that you reached your conclusion

All responses require a 5 sentence minimum.

1. Explain the type of evidence presented in this chapter; provide some specific examples as well. Do you think this evidence supports the model(s) of primate evolution presented by the authors? Why or why not?

2. Compare three major hypotheses about primate origins, making reference to each one’s key ecological reason for primate uniqueness.

3. Discuss the biogeography of the origins of African great apes and orangutans using examples from the Miocene ape fossil record.

LINK- http://explorations.americananthro.org/

Chapter 9 Reading Assignment

For full points –

Meet the minimum sentence requirement

and

Clearly answer the questions, making sure that you demonstrate how it is that you reached your conclusion

All responses require a 5 sentence minimum.

1. As you read, evidence for early hominin evolution isn’t as robust as we would like. For example, fossil sample sizes for the various proposed hominins could leave a lot to be desired. Overall, what’s your opinion on the evidence presented in this chapter. Do you think the evidence justifies accepting the existence of these (some? all?) hominins? Explain. Give specific examples when appropriate.

2. What is the difference between a “derived” versus a “primitive” trait? Give an example of both, seen in Au. afarensis.

3. Which of the paleoenvironment hypothesis have been used to describe early hominin diversity, and which have been used to describe bipedalism?

LINK- http://explorations.americananthro.org/

Chapter 12 Reading Assignment

For full points –

Meet the minimum sentence requirement

and

Clearly answer the questions, making sure that you demonstrate how it is that you reached your conclusion

All responses require a 5 sentence minimum.

Before reading the chapter:

1. If species only give birth to their own type of species, then how exactly did modern humans originate? Meaning, you are a human being and you came from two human beings and those human beings came from other humans beings and so on. But you are telling me that somehow, if you look into your distant past, you have ancestors that are not Homo sapiens, but a different species? Please explain this to me.

2. What are the skeletal and behavioral traits that define modern Homo sapiens? What are the evolutionary explanations for its presence?

3. Do you think we are still evolving? Why or why not? Explain your answer.

LINK- http://explorations.americananthro.org/