Principles of Nursing Surgical

Principles of Nursing Surgical

Nurses often play a vital role in their day to day patient surgery activities. Basing on the daily unit design, nurses are required to have numerous skills to enable them to effectively perform their duties in a theatre, recovery units, preoperative units, and wards. One of the key principles of nursing surgical is to perform the duties and manage multiple procedures of the surgical field. Furthermore, nurses are required to manage as many patients as possible while providing dynamic care and delivering the right information and patient care. This paper aims to further explain the principles and concepts of medical-surgical nursing. You can as well go  website in case of any inquiry.

What Is Surgery And Surgical Nursing?

A surgical/ surgery nurse can also be referred to as a scrub or theatre nurse. They are trained professionals whose purpose is to help in day to day surgical routines and even the complex ones. Also, the surgical nurses perform various duties such as;

  • Providing patient care while undergoing the surgery and even after the surgery
  • Helping the surgeons and anesthetist in different areas
  • Particularizing majorly in perioperative patient care

What Does A Post-Op Nurse Do?

The key purpose of a post-op nurse is to offer proper care to the patients who have undergone anesthesia. They are usually given this role since they have relevant experience when it comes to surgery fields, emergency medical care. The post-op nurses are also responsible for treating the patients and ensuring that they wake up safely from anesthesia.

What Degree Does a Surgical Nurse Need?

To be a successful professional surgical nurse, the first thing you need is to be registered as a nurse. It involves getting a degree in nursing and qualifying in the national exams for Registered Nurses.

Also, you need to be educated in order to acquire sufficient surgical nursing skills and earn a master’s or bachelor’s degree. Apart from your degree, you have to complete the internship in the surgical area and pass the license examination to get certified.

3 Phases Of Perioperative Nursing

Perioperative nursing refers to the activities, duties, and responsibilities of a surgical nurse before the surgery, during, and after. The surgical procedure requires systematic nursing procedures and tools to give quality care to the patient. Therefore, a successful surgical procedure involves three major phases. These phases are as follows;

  • Preoperative

The preoperative phase is a period between the patient’s decision to undergo surgery and the time he/she is taken into the theatre.

  • Intraoperative

This is the phase when the patient is transferred to the theatre until the time he/she is admitted back into the recovery ward.

  • Postoperative

Postoperative is the period between the patient’s admission into the recovery ward and the period of check-up.

Duties and Responsibilities of a Surgical Nurse

The key role and responsibilities of nurse in medical surgical settings involves providing assistance where necessary. It can be in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative sections of the surgical process. Therefore, the duties and responsibilities of a surgical nurse include;

  • Preoperative duties

A surgical nurse can help the patient prepare for the surgery in many ways, for example;

  • Informing the patient about different instruction before the surgery.
  • Helping the patient settle in the surgery room and preparing them for the surgery.
  • Making sure that the preoperative assessments are in order.
  • Making sure that the chart and all the paperwork of the patient are complete.
  • Assessing and interviewing the patients before the surgery begins.
  • Intra-operative duties

While in the operating/ surgery room, surgical nurses can help in;

  • Scrubbing- helping the surgeon during the surgery by handing over the required supplies and instruments.
  • Registered nurse (RN) assistant- directly helping the surgeon during the surgery.  
  • Circulation- managing the entire room and ensuring that the environment is both comfortable and safe.
  • Postoperative duties

Once the surgery has been completed, the surgical nurses are thus in charge of the following;

  • Dressing the wounds.
  • Making sure that the patients are safe and comfortable.
  • Checking on the patients and handling any sign of infections, bleeding, and distress.
  • Helping the patients handle any effects resulting from the surgery by administering pain relief management.

Common Postoperative Complication

At times, complications may occur after the patient undergoes surgery. There are different postoperative complications, it includes;

  • Hemorrhage- this also refers to severe bleeding, quick loss of blood from the part of the surgery.
  • Shock- this is a very dangerous complication caused by blood flow reduction in the body.
  • Infection- an infection may result if the surgical wound is not kept clean or if bacteria get in.
  • Urinal retention- this can occur to the patient after the surgery.
  • Pulmonary complications as a result of insufficient deep breath or inhalation of water, blood, and food.

What is the Main Duty of the Nurse in the Preoperative Stage?

Preoperative is the first set of work principles of nursing surgical. Here, the main duty of the surgical nurse is to make sure that the patient is well prepared for surgery. They should, therefore;

  • Check the health status of the patients before undergoing surgery.
  • Inform the patient about benefits as well as the risks of the surgery.
  • Answer any question asked by the patients and handle their concerns

Why Did You Choose Perioperative Nursing?

Nursing students choose perioperative nursing because of three major reasons, these reasons include;

  • Personal interest
  • To assist and care for the sick patients
  • To be more useful in the nursing field

What is Preoperative Preparation?

Preoperative preparation of the patient is part of the comprehensive care starting from consultation by the surgeon to the patient’s recovery. Therefore, preoperative preparation involves preparing and managing patients before they undergo surgery. It usually includes physical preparation and psychological preparation.

What is the Purpose of the Preoperative Checklist?

A preoperative assessment is a technique which most of the surgical nurses apply while documenting, communicating, and identifying various risks. Therefore preoperative checklist anticipates the probability of both the negative and positive results that the patient may undergo after surgery or anesthesia.

What is a Preoperative Assessment?

Preoperative assessment involves identifying any comorbidity condition of the patient that may result in complications. These complications can occur during the surgery or in the postoperative phase. This why is it important for every patient to take part in the preoperative assessment before undergoing surgery.

How are Surgical Procedures Classified?

The principles of nursing surgical procedures can be classified according to;

  • The type of the process,
  • Urgency,
  • System of the body involved,
  • Instrumentation,
  • And the level of invasiveness

What are the Types of Surgical Instruments?

When it comes to general surgical procedures, there is a variety of common instruments to use. These instruments are further categorized according to their functions as follows;

  • Holding or grasping tools- tissue forceps and hemostatic forceps
  • Cutting tools- scissors, scalpels, knives, and surgery blades
  • Retractors- Weitlaner, Gelpi

The Riskiest Surgeries

Whenever a patient needs to undergo surgery, there are a few complications that may result. Some surgical procedures are common, while others may lead to fatalities or dangerous side effects. This is the reason why learning about the riskiest surgery is important. This is because some patients may need to undergo surgery from time to time. So below are some of the surgical risks to note;

  • Esophagectomy- complete or partial removal of the esophagus
  • Pancreatectomy- removal of the pancreas
  • Spinal osteomyelitis surgery- involves surgery in the spine
  • Craniectomy- removal of some pieces of the skull  
  • Bladder cystectomy- removing the whole or part of the bladder